Amalgamation 9L & 12L 60th Anniversary

60th Anniversary of the amalgamation between

9th Queen’s Royal Lancers and 12th Royal Lancers (Prince of Wales’s)

 at Tidworth on

 Sunday 11th September 1960.

‘It is not the beginning but the continuing of the same until it be thoroughly finished which yielded the true glory.’[1]

Having escaped the amalgamations of 1957,[2] on 21st January 1959, it was announced by her Majesty’s Secretary of State for War, Christopher Soames, that 9th Queen’s Royal Lancers and 12th Royal Lancers (Prince of Wales’s) would be amalgamated. It was a sad blow for both regiments and came as a complete surprise, made worse by the fact that no warning had been given to either regiment and that the news came, in the case of the 9th, from a junior officer who heard it on the radio and by the nanny of the 12th Lancers Commanding Officer’s children.

This disgraceful method of dealing with what was a very emotive subject, quickly provoked a question in the House of Commons by Sir Martin Lindsay Bart, CBE, DSO (Conservative MP for Solihull) a highly decorated ex-Highland Fusilier Officer, and Polar Explorer, who as a young officer in the Nigeria Regiment had won the Nigerian Grand National!!

He asked Mr Soames:

”Why the Officers Commanding the 9th and 12th Lancers had received the news of their Regiments’ forthcoming amalgamation from in one case, the 9th, a junior officer at regimental duty and in the other case, the 12th, from his children’s nanny, both having heard it announced on the wireless (sic)?”

The Secretary of State for War replied:

“A week before the announcement the Colonels of the Regiments were told of the proposed amalgamation but were asked not to disclose the information. A serious error was made in not informing the Commanding Officers before the announcement. I regret that this should have happened. Prompt and full apologies were made to the regiments concerned.”

Both regiments were bitter about the amalgamation and of course appalled at how it had been handled. The Adjutant of the 9th, Captain The Hon Nicholas Crossley had the resignation of six Officers on his desk by lunchtime and the Commanding Officer of the 12th (Lieutenant Colonel S M O’H Abraham MC) complained to the CIGS and always regretted that he had not written to the Queen.

Brigadier C.H.M. Peto, DSO, DL, Colonel the 9th Lancers summed it up very well in the message he sent immediately to the 9th:

“The regiment will have heard the news that it shall be amalgamated by April 1961 with 12th Lancers, with some bitterness. The regiment of the future, whatever its name shall be, will be the offspring of two wonderful parents. We must see to it that the child grows into a strong, brave and efficient creature, of which generations to come will be as proud as I am of the dear 9th Lancers at the moment.”

Both regiments exchanged signals (both regiments have a Tired Hunter and Mounted Lancers amongst their silver).

“From 12th Lancers to 9th Lancers Lancer to Lancer”

Our Hunter though tired, has never been gelded

If yours is a mare the twain can be welded.

The result of the match when you have a good look

Can’t fail to turn out as the best in the book.

 

“From 9th Lancers to 12th Lancers”

Our hunter is gelded no foal can we breed,

But our Lancer like yours is well mounted indeed.

So we’ll ride in half sections, knee to knee in the line

And show the whole world that there is nothing so fine.

 

Fortunately both regiments were stationed in Germany and it was possible to organise many details of the amalgamated regiment before the 12th sailed for an Active Service tour in Cyprus, but knowing that on their return their regiment was to be dismantled and amalgamated tested their morale, something politicians care not about, which they clearly demonstrated on this occasion. It was the intention that the amalgamation process would take lace over the months of August and September and the new regiment would emerge as a complete entity in October, with the intention it would deploy immediately to Northern Ireland. For the 12th Lancers they recorded that the amalgamation process had gone well and that both regiments ‘achieved agreement over so many matters that could have been bedevilled and embittered the new regiments, but have been able to present a united front to the War Office.’ This was attributed to the hard work of the Colonels and the Commanding Officers of both regiments.[3]

The amalgamation of the two regiments took place at Tidworth on Sunday, 11th September 1960. It was decided that a Church Parade would be the most appropriate way to mark the occasion. The two regiments marched separately to the Garrison Church on a sunny autumn morning both marching past their respective Colonels, before entering the church. Inside the church, each regiment occupied one side of the main aisle, whilst families were seated in the side aisle. The Guidons were then marched in and laid upon the altar. The moment at which the two regiments became one was when Rev P Malins the garrison chaplain read the biding prayer:

“We are gathered together in the presence of Almighty God, as members of the 9th and 12th Royal Lancers, in thankful remembrance of God’s mercies in past days, as we are united to become the 9th/12th Royal Lancers, we ask for His blessing and guidance in the days to come. We remember before God the glorious traditions of service and gallantry of both regiments, and that we pray with God’s help that we may be worthy of those who have gone before us, and in unity together rededicate our lives to the service of God and his kingdom.”[4]

Changing Badges and Numerals. SQMS Priddy-Smith and Sgt Ward

After the service, which was conducted by the garrison chaplain, assisted by the Rev Christopher Perowne (Chaplain to the 9th Lancers 1939-41) the two Guidons were marched out together and the new regiment formed up by squadrons on the Lucknow Square, near the church. Cap badges and shoulder titles were changed here and the 9th/12th Royal Lancers then marched past the Colonel of the Regiment, General Sir Richard McCreery, and dismissed on the Bhurtpore, Barrack Square.[5]

After the parade, spectators were given lunch in the Officers’ and Sergeants’ Messes. A large number of telegrams were received during the day, including one from our Colonel-in-Chief, Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother, which read as follows:

Buckingham Palace, 8 am, 11th September

On the formation of the 9th/12th Royal Lancers (Prince of Wales’s) I send to all ranks my warmest greetings. I am confident that the reputation for loyalty and courage which the 9th and 12th Lancers have earned in their past history will be inherited and fully sustained in the future and I trust that the new regiment will not only uphold but will enhance the noble traditions which are your heritage.

I am indeed proud to be your Colonel-in-Chief and I can assure you that the interest of my Regiment will always be close to my heart.

Elizabeth R Colonel-in-Chief

HWKP and PAW

[1] Commemorative Plaque in Tidworth Garrison Church.

[2] R. Charrington, Spearman, The History of the 9th/12th Royal Lancers (Price of Wales’s), (2010), p.207.

[3] The XII Royal Lancers Journal, April 1960, p.32

[4] R. Brockbank, A Short History of the 9th/12th Royal Lancers (1990), p.20.

[5] Brockbank, A Short History, p.21; Charrington, Spearman, p.209, States Lucknow Square.

Lancers at Mons

 

 This article describes some of the contributions made by the six historic antecedent lancer regiments during the Great War, in particular in relation to Mons, the emblazoned Battle Honour on The Royal Lancers’ Guidon that gives its name to The Royal Lancers’ annual celebration weekend.

The Mons battle honour relates to the Advance to Mons, the Battle of Mons, the Retreat from Mons, and the Return to Mons. It features on the Guidons of 9L, 12L, 5L and 16L but as we will see, many lancers originating in 17L and 21L would also have been painfully familiar with the city.

The article aims to not only look at the regiments, but also at the wider story which involved key appointments held by lancers in the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) at Mons and the pre-war relationship between the regiments that established a system of mutual support and dependency, which in turn helped foster the ‘cavalry spirit,’ amongst lancers.

All cavalry regiments were formally paired (affiliated) in 1897 with the disestablishment of the cavalry depot at Canterbury.

These individual pairings were designed to replicate the infantry principle, with one battalion being at home and the other being posted abroad to protect the Empire. 

Each home-based lancer regiment would train and process recruits out as the ‘draft’ each September and would process the invalids and time-expired soldiers who would be sent home each May so that they could be administered out of the Army. 

The priority for manning at that time was the Army of the Empire, with home units always understrength and manned by soldiers too young (under 21) to serve overseas.

In August 1914, 5L, 9L, 12L and 16L were all in the UK, and 17L and 21L were in India.

An additional measure to sustain lancer regiments during wartime was the commitment of three (out of seventeen in total) Reserve Regiments of Cavalry (RRC).

Naturally, these three RRC regiments were typically commanded by lancers: 6 RRC under Lieutenant Colonel Farnell-Colvin 9L in Dublin was to support 5L and 12L. 7 RRC at Tidworth trained soldiers for 9L and 21L, while 8 RRC, also at the Curragh and initially commanded by Colonel Portal DSO, 17L, trained men for 16L and 17L. When war was declared in August 1914, the four UK based lancer regiments needed to be brought up to strength at speed so that they could deploy on a war footing.

Lancers disembarking August 1914

The cavalry division was understrength by 768 officers and men in 1914, so it was decided that the quickest means of augmentation would be to mobilise reservists and take up all officers and soldiers from Indian-based Regiments who were on course or leave, mainly 17L and 21L.

All the reservists were ordered to report to their nearest RRC: the exact number of 17L and 21L reservists is difficult to calculate but, from the few records which exist, it would appear there were approximately 130 17L reservists in all, including eight officers at home on leave.

In the main, these were ordered to join 8 RRC which, as we have seen, supported 16L.[1] It seems that some of the younger men were also posted to 2LG, while the older soldiers were sent to the Army Veterinary Corps.[2]

A Sergeant from 21L on leave in England wrote ‘the 21L reservists are everywhere, LCpl Phillips formerly of A Squadron is now with B Squadron 12L, I think our regiment supplied drafts for all the lancer regiments.’[3]

Meanwhile, an estimated 50% 21L reservists were posted to 9L.[4]  Certainly, by the end of 1915, 56 21L reservists fighting with 9L had been killed, wounded or captured.[5] Their names feature on the 9L Great War memorial at Canterbury cathedral, recorded as soldiers from their home regiments.

Mobilisation in England also affected the two lancer regiments in India who, in addition to losing their posted manpower, had to assist each other to get ready for war in the east.

On 30 August in Sialkot, 17L received orders to mobilise as part of 1 Indian Cavalry Division.[6] The scale of what was required was greater than the 17L possessed in men, horses, and equipment, so the deficiencies needed to be found from their comrades in 21L.

Often this is an excuse to solve problems by parting with recalcitrant soldiers, weak officers and spavined chargers, but the record shows that 17L were grateful for the support they received, writing ‘we knew they would send us their best…we sincerely hope they will join us in the field before long. Time and again we have jousted against them. Now we would ride side-by-side against the enemies of the world.[7]

The Cavalry Division that went to war with the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), the Kaiser’s so-called “contemptible little army”, was commanded by General Edmund Allenby (formerly 5L), and on his staff was Captain Henry Howard, 16L, as his GSO3.

Of the five cavalry brigades, 3 Cavalry Brigade containing 5L and 16L was commanded by Brigadier Hubert Gough (formerly 16L).  His younger brother Johnnie, who had already won the Victoria Cross like his father and uncle before him, was chief of staff for I Corps, commanded by General Haig, formerly 17L.

On II Corps staff was Major Henry Fraser, 21L, who had the unenviable task of escorting General Grierson’s body back to England when he died (of natural causes) on the train before the war had really begun.

By early September 1914, the original cavalry establishment was adjusted and a second cavalry division was created.  This new division was made up of 3 Cavalry and 5 (Independent) Cavalry Brigades, under the command of Brigadier Hubert Gough. 

Therefore, it happened that Brigadier Gough had 5L, 12L and 16L under this command during the Retreat from Mons, while the Quartermaster-General (QMG) of the entire BEF was General Robertson (formerly 16L) who later would become the most senior officer in the Army, when he assumed the appointment of Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS). He also uniquely holds the distinction of being the only soldier to enlist as a private and reach the rank of Field-Marshal.

So, we can see that there were Lancers and Lancer Regiments dotted about key leadership roles and manning important tactical and strategic positions when the wall of field grey Germans started to move across the plains of north west Europe bent on conquest and, as we shall see, it was just as well they were there.

During the first few days of the Great War General Allenby’s Cavalry Division was situated in the vicinity of Mons, where the first serious battles on continental Europe took place.

On 22 August, D Squadron 16L were tasked with the Greys to see if the settlement of Péronne was occupied by the Germans. Lieutenant Tempest-Hicks’ troop was detailed, and quickly established it was.[8]

It was the Greys who first came into contact with the enemy, with 16L ‘a good second in starting the ball rolling.’ Tempest-Hicks’ patrol was ambushed by some Germans and had his horse shot from under him during the engagement, while the patrol had two or three men wounded. [9] One of them, Private Betts wrote:

There were several corn stooks in the field and the Germans tried to take cover behind them, but we were going at a fair gallop and they didnt have much of a chance…they didnt have time to run for it and we speared quite a few on the way through and a few more on the way back…As we came back I aimed for a German, but he dodged me and my point went into the ground. Luckily, the lance-shaft broke, or I would have been fetched out of the saddle.[10]

It is quite possible that this was the first lance action of the war:  it was on or about this date that 5L were the last troops to leave the town of Mons when the Retreat began. It was to be 4 more years and hundreds of thousands of lives later before a Lancer would set foot in the town again.

On 24 August,  9L conducted a mounted action at Audregnies saving the guns of 119th Battery RFA at Élouges. They paid a heavy price, with the regiment having one officer, Lieutenant Garstin, killed, two captured and four wounded, and 14 soldiers killed, 18 wounded and 57 taken prisoner.  In effect, the regiment lost nearly a squadron, a quarter of its fighting strength. Brigadier De Lisle issued a Special Brigade Order saying:

It was necessary to save the 5th Division from an organised counter-attack during their retirement, but for the 2nd Cavalry Brigade his division would have been destroyed to the last man. The true cavalry spirit of the 9L in daring to charge unbroken infantry in order to save neighbouring troops, and that of the 4DG in the effective support given without hesitation or thought of danger.”

During the morning, Brigadier Gough’s 3 Cavalry Brigade came into dismounted action at Angre, just to the west of 9L and, together with 2 Cavalry Brigade, these two forward brigades covered the retreat of the 5th Infantry Division. On the following day, 12L who were covering the withdrawal of I Corps, saw action for the first time and C Squadron lost the majority of Lieutenant Dan Moore’s 1 Troop when 11 men were either killed or captured on the 25 August near Bavai.

On 28 August, 12L conducted a cavalry charge at Moÿ de l’Aisne against two regiments of Garde Dragoner as part of a brigade engagement.  This, for the most part, was a text book example of peace-time training being put into practice. From the beginning of the war, lancers had consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of pre-war cavalry training, showing by their flexibility and effectiveness that a blend of infantry and mounted skills made them uniquely competent in both the mounted and dismounted roles.

On 31 August, as 3 Cavalry Brigade continued to cover the retreat of I Corps,  5L retired through Fontenoy and crossed the river Aisne by the bridge at Le Pont. Lieutenant T De Burgh was left to watch the crossing with one troop of C Squadron together with Lieutenants E Robinson and Rice with two troops of D Squadron. The two D Squadron troops were positioned on the north side of the river as flank guards, to stop the Germans sneaking through and perhaps getting behind them.  They had orders to cross the river in the rear of the regiment. When crossing the bridge, they came under very heavy fire, but got across with the loss of five horses. Lance Corporal John Haley wrote:

Two troops of D Squadron were cut off from the regiment, about 60 men. As our advance point went through it was fired at…all the while the Germans were firing at us. We mounted up the best we could and set off for the bridge, which was barricaded with two big carts. We charged it and got through with our men, it was with good luck, no one was killed, only one man hurt through his horse being shot. When we got over the bridge we dismounted and cleared them out.[11]

Lance Corporal Joseph Smith, the soldier who was unseated during the gallop for the bridges, wrote:

It was awful, I lost horse and all arms, so made a run for it. Blinded with dust, stumbled till I fell down into a deep ditch, and there lay in about six inches of mud and water. In a few minutes four more of my mates fell in the same ditch, and as they had also lost their arms, we laid there, without means of defence, save one lance and my jack knife and my other pocket-knife…and our good British fists. There are 13 of us left now in my troop of 38.[12]

On 7 September, just over two weeks after their charge at Audregnies, 9L would charge again at Le Moncel near Fretoy.

Coincidently, it would be against one the Garde Dragoner regiments that 12L had engaged at Moÿ de l’Aisne the week before. 

This, on the last day of the Retreat, would be the last lance against lance charge of the British Army, a supremely aggressive action that marked the first day of the BEF’s resumption of its advance north.  

During the charge, Trumpeter ‘Paddy’ Byrne of 21L who charged with the 9L lost ‘one or two of his fingers in an encounter with a German Dragoon.‘[13] 

The exploits of the two regiments that charged did not go unnoticed: both the commanding officers were to be promoted to command their own brigades by summer of the next year, while Lieutenant Colonel David Campbell, 9L would finish the war as GOC 21st Division. 

Promotion is fast in war time.

During these mounted actions, Private Harry Knight of Northampton, who had enlisted in 5L and transferred to 12L, was killed with A Squadron at Moÿ de l’Aisne and Corporal Denslow, who had served with 21L, was killed at Audregnies with 9L.

These are just two of many, many examples of men who had served in one lancer regiment before being killed while serving with another – truly  “all of one company”.

During the early period of the war, soldiers of 21L wrote to their friends back in India telling them how the war was going and what was happening amongst the casualties.  Even though they were badged to 9L, the 21L men were still fiercely loyal to their regiment and did not want to be subsumed into 9L:

We all wear our own badges and numerals, although we were issued with the 9L, but all the French and Belgium lasses possess them now and I am a barefacedlancer.So do send me cap badge[14] and a set of numerals, I do not want to wear the 9th, and want to let some of the other regiments know that there are some 21L having a go.[15]

Lancer regiments have always been family regiments, and amongst the lancers going to war were brothers from the same families serving in the different regiments.

Captain Gerald Reynolds of 21L, who was on leave from India, served with 9L, and it was his younger brother Captain Guy Reynolds, Adjutant 9L, to whom he reported on mobilisation. Their older brother, Captain Alan Reynolds, also went to war serving with 12L.

During the early stages of the war at Mons, Captain Francis Grenfell had gone to war with his twin brother Riversdale, who had acted as a ‘galloper’ for the commanding officer. Their older brother, Lieutenant Robert, 12L was attached to 21L and had been killed with them at Omdurman in 1898.

The current Colonel of the Regiment is third-generation 12L.  His grandfather was Regimental Signals Officer with 12L when they went to war in 1914.

When the war was about to end, on 11 November 1918, 5L’s commanding officer was sent for by the brigade commander of 7 Infantry Brigade and told that Mons had been taken by the leading battalion.

He was asked to send a squadron quickly through Mons and seize and hold the high ground about St. Denis which commanded Mons to the north-east.

A Squadron under Lieutenant Scott-Brown was ordered to saddle up at once and carry out this mission

The squadron moved out at 0745 and had to make a long detour owing to the bridges having been blown up over the canal and craters in the roads.

Going through Mons, the cheering crowds were so great that they were hardly able to make headway.

At St. Denis, the mayor reminded Lieutenant Scott-Brown that the first Cavalry skirmish of the war in August 1914 had taken place nearby.

In the meantime, orders were received that hostilities would cease at 1100 that morning, and this order was sent off to A Squadron as soon as their location could be found.

The advance guard of the brigade was to make an official entry into Mons at 1030 and 5L at once turned out an escort of 34 other ranks with lance pennons and one gun from the Royal Horse Artillery which had been in the operation round Mons in August 1914.

General Currie, GOC of the Canadian Corps spoke to Second Lieutenant Allison MC, 5L, the escort commander, on his entry into Mons that afternoon and invited him to stand on the steps of the Hotel de Ville with him, introducing him at the same time to the mayor.

General Currie directed that the lancer escort should march off parade first, saying that, as it was due to the ‘contemptible little British Army’ that they were at Mons that day, and as the escort was the representative there of the British Army that had fought at Mons in 1914, the place of honour should be taken by them.

5L therefore had the distinction of being the last to leave Mons in 1914, and the first to return in 1918.

For 9L, they too returned nearly to the place where the war had begun for them four years earlier when, on 11 November they were in action as the advance-guard to the cavalry brigade in pursuit of the retreating Germans, neatly repaying with interest the painful retreat they had protected and taken part in at the start of the war.

Lancers near Mons in August 1914

They arrived at Beloeil, just 10 miles north-west of Mons and just an hour’s ride from Thulin where B Squadron had first engaged the Germans on 23 August 1914, when the war came quietly to an end[16]

By the end of the war, six lancer regiments had fought on the North West Frontier and Europe and had the distinction of winning three Victoria Crosses; Captain Francis Grenfell (9L), Private ’Billy’ Clare (5L) and Private Charles Hull (21L).   

The combined lancer losses during the war was 1046 officers and men. We will remember them.

PAW

 

[1] Micholls, pp.84-85.

[2] White Lancer Vol VII, No. 3 December 1914 p.72.

[3] The Vedette, 31 March 1915 p.14.

[4] The Vedette, 31 March 1915 p.14.

[5] The Vedette, 31 December 1915, pp.117-119.

[6] Anglesey, History of the British Cavalry, Volume VII, p.223.

[7] White Lancer Vol VII, No. 3 December 1914 p.72.

[8] 16L War Diary, 22 August 1914.

[9] Horn Diary, 22 August 1914.

[10] Ascoli, The Mons Star, p.54.

[11] Northampton Chronicle and Echo, 21st October 1914.

[12] Northampton Chronicle and Echo, 21st October 1914.

[13] The Vedette, 31 March 1915 p.14.

[14] Note it was not called a ‘motto’ in 1914!

[15] The Vedette, 31 March 1915 p.15.

[16] Sheppard, p.306.